Thursday, September 20, 2007

1800 to 1801

1800. Thomas Jefferson wins election to the U.S. presidency over President Adams.

1800. Washington, D.C., replaces New York as the U.S. capital.

1800. The voltaic cell invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta pioneers the electric storage battery.

1800. English engineer Richard Trevithick builds a high-pressure steam engine that will be used to power a road vehicle.

1800. Infrared rays are discovered by Sir William Herschel.

1800. The Library of Congress is established.

1800. The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington by Mason Locke Weems, a Philadelphia clergyman turned book peddler has fabricated stories including one about young George chopping down his father's cherry tree.

1800. The world's population reaches 870 million.

Castle Rackrent. Maria Edgeworth. British. 1800. Novel. Dissolute life of Irish landlords of 18th century.

Mary Stuart. Friedrich Schiller. German. 1800. Play. Presents Elizabeth as unable to command Mary's death. Hasty official is blamed.

1801. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is created by Parliament.

1801. The Holy Roman Empire is practically destroyed by Napoleon Bonaparte.

1801. Secretary of State John Marshall is named chief justice of the United States. In the next 34 years, Marshall's court will establish fundamental principles for interpreting the Constitution.

1801. Richard Trevithick employs his steam engine to power a road carriage, the first steam vehicle to carry passengers.

1801. The automatic Jacquard loom developed by French inventor Joseph Jacquard employs punched cards to guide the movements of a loom that weaves figured silk fabrics and will later be used for making figured worsteds. It encounters initial resistance from weavers fearful of being displaced but will gain acceptance within the decade.

1801. The metric system fixed by France's National Convention late in 1799 is made compulsory in a move that most of Europe will follow but not Britain or the United States.

1801. "Johnny Appleseed," John Chapman, arrives in the Ohio Valley with seeds from Philadelphia cider presses that will make the valley a rich source of apples.

The Maid of Orleans. Friedrich Schiller. German. 1801. Play. Joan of Arc. Emphasizes Joan's idealism, refusal to be diverted by earthly temptations.

Atala. Francois Chateaubriand. French. 1801. Novel. Violent passion in the primeval woods of North America. Started the Romantic movement in French literature.

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