Monday, June 18, 2007

1600 to 1604

1600. Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, 51, is burnt at the stake February 17 at Rome. The Inquisition has condemned him after 7 years of imprisonment for supporting Copernican astronomy.

1600. French fur traders establish a colony on the St. Lawrence River.

1600. Tobacco sells at London for its weight in silver shilling and is a popular extravagance among the dandies who dip snuff and blow smoke rings as they puff on clay pipes.

Twelfth Night; or What You Will. Shakespeare. British. 1600. Play. Plot hinges on the physical likeness between brother and sister who become separated. Low comedy involves Maria, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek and Malvolio.

England's Helicon. Anonymous. British. 1600. Anthology. Collection of poetry published in Elizabethan period. Limited to pastoral poetry.

The Phoenix and the Turtle. Shakespeare. British. 1601. Poetry. Provokes speculation about its merit and meaning.

Troilus and Cressida. Shakespeare. British. 1601. Play. Troilus pursues Cressida; they consummate their love. She is unfaithful with Diomedes who has taken her back to her father, who went over the the Greeks. When Patroclus is killed, Achilles kills Hector, Troilus's older brother. Troilus leads the Trojans back to the city.

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Shakespeare. British. 1601. Play. His father's ghost demands revenge, but Hamlet is unable to act, beset by doubts. Hamlet is thoughtful, not active. Preoccupation with consequences of his actions: "the first modern man." He is finally swept to revenge by events.

The Poetaster. Ben Jonson. British. 1601. Play. Satire attacks Thomas Dekker and John Marshton.

All's Well That Ends Well. Shakespeare. British. 1602. Play. Bertram will not marry Helena. Sets a challenge for her. She substitutes for his lover. She gains his ring and conceives his child.

1603. Queen Elizabeth I dies March 24 at age 69 after an extraordinary 45-year reign, ending 118 years of Tudor monarchy in England. She is succeeded by Scotland's James VI, Stuart, son of the late Mary Queen of Scots, who becomes James I of England.

1603. Samuel de Champlain, 36, explores the Saguenay and St. Lawrence rivers. Learns of the Great Lakes and Niagara Falls; makes an alliance with the Algonquins that will endure for 150 years.

1603. London has an epidemic of the Black Death that kills at least 33,000.

A woman Killed with Kindness. Thomas Heywood. British. 1603. Play. Husband invites his charming friend into his house, who promptly seduces his wife. Banished, the wife pines away and is reconciled to her husband on her deathbed.

1604. England's James I directs his efforts to American colonization.

1604. Samuel de Champlain explores the North American Atlantic Coast from Maine to Cape Cod.

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