Saturday, May 19, 2007

1484 to 1492

1484. The tea ceremony has been introduced by Japan's Yoshimasa, a shogun who has encouraged painting and drama. The tea ceremony will remain for centuries a cherished part of Japanese culture.

1485. The Battle of Bosworth, August 22, ends England's Wars of the Roses that have continued since 1460. Henry, Earl of Richmond, 28, defeats Richard III, who falls in battle. Richard's crown is found hanging on a bush. the earl is crowned, October 30, as Henry VII, restores peace to the realm and will reign until 1509, inaugurating a 117-year Tudor dynasty.

1485. The "sweating sickness" cuts down the army of England's Henry VII. The mysterious malady closes down Oxford University for 6 weeks, spreads quickly to London, and within a week has killed thousands.

1486. Christopher Columbus submits his plan for a westward expedition to Ferdinand and Isabella and persuades them to sponsor him.

1487. Pope Innocent VIII names Tomas de Torquemada grand inquisitor, and Torquemada's Inquisition introduces measures of cruelty that will make his name infamous.

1487. The Star Chamber introduced by England's Henry VII gives defendants no right to know the names of their accusers. The king moves toward royal absolutism.

Orlando Innamorato (Roland in Love). Matteo Boiardo. 1487. Epic poem. Pagan princess Angelica sows discord in ranks of Charlemagne's paladins. Tries to render them helpless before the Saracens led by Agramante.

1489. Malleus Maleficarum by the inquisitors Kramer and Sprenger is a handbook on witch hunting that will be used to justify the burning and shackling of innocent midwives and countless mentally ill people.

"The Nut-Brown Maid." Anonymous. British. 1490? Poetry. Maid is wooed, won by a disguised knight who tells her of hardships if she marries him. She stands the test. He is revealed to be a rich earl's son.

Robin Hood's Adventures. Anonymous. British. 1490. Tales. Legendary "good" outlaw who protected and supported the poor while he stole from the rich.

1491. Girolamo Savonarola, 39, begins denouncing the corruption at Florence.

1492. Columbus weighs anchor Friday, August 3, with 52 men aboard his flagship Santa Maria, 18 aboard the Pinta and another 18 aboard the Nina. Land is sighted October 12. First known European landing in the Western Hemisphere since early in the 11th century. He disembarks in the Bahamas on an island he names San Salvador. Columbus lands in Cuba, October 28.

1492. A decree issued March 31 by Ferdinand and Isabella extends the Spanish Inquisition. It orders Granada's 150,000 Jews to sell up and leave the country by July 31 "for the honor and glory of God." Thousands pretend to accept the cross (they will be called Marranos), some 60,000 pay for the right to settle in Portugal, still others are welcomed by the Ottoman sultan Bajazet II. Ferdinand decrees November 23 that all property and assets left by the Jews belong to the Crown.

1492. Luis de Torres and Rodrigo de Jerez make the first known reference to smoking tobacco. Sent ashore in the New World by Columbus, they report seeing natives who "drank smoke," and Rodrigo will later be imprisoned by the Spanish Inquisition for his "devilish habit" of smoking.

No comments: