Sunday, March 25, 2007

37BC to 7BC

37/30BC. Georgics. Vergil. Roman. Poetry. Four books. Didactic. Agriculture is the subject. Based on Hesiod's Works and Days. The work of a philosopher-poet. Book I: Advice on farming in general. Lament over the ills following assassination of Julius Caesar. Book 2: Grapevines and fruit trees. Paean to the crops and the heroes of Italy. Book 3: Care and propagation of livestock. Describes the effect of a plague that killed all living things. Book 4: Tales of miraculous regeneration, including the bees of Aristaeus, the god of beekeeping, and the tale of Orpheus and Eurydice.

31BC. The Battle of Actium, Sept. 2, ends in a naval victory for Octavian (Augustus Caesar) who becomes ruler of the entire Roman world.

30BC. Marc Antony commits suicide after hearing a false report that Cleopatra has killed herself. Cleopatra dies by suicide after failing to seduce Octavian (Augustus Caesar).

27BC. The Roman Empire that will rule the world until AD 476 is founded January 23. Octavian receives the name Augustus Caesar from the Senate.

19BC. Aeneid. Vergil. Roman. Poetry. Twelve books. The Trojan origin of the Roman people from the Trojan hero Aeneas to Octavius (Augustus). Book 1: Aeneas and his Trojan followers are driven by storm to the shores of Carthage and Queen Dido. Book 2: The tale of the wooden horse, the destruction of Troy and the escape with his father Anchises, his son Ascanius, and his followers. Book 3: The perils encountered on the westward voyage from Troy. The death of his father. Book 4: Dido's love for Aeneas. Departure from Carthage. Her suicide and cremation. Book 5: In Sicily, they hold funeral games in honor of Anchises. Book 6: Visits his father in the underworld, sees future generations of Romans and is told of their exploits. The Roman skill is to make peace the custom, to spare the conquered, to wage war until the haughty are brought low. Book 7: Latinus promises his daughter Lavinia to Aeneas. Turnus, her betrothed vs. Aeneas. Book 8: Preparations for war. Visit to Latium, future home of the Romans. Book 9: In the absence of Aeneas, Turnus fires Trojan ships. Assaults camp. The heroism of Nisus and Eurylaus. Book 10: War between Aeneas and Turnus. Book 11: The battle continues. Book 12: Aeneas defeats Turnus in hand-to-hand combat.

13BC. Ars Poetica. Horace. Roman. Poetry. Rules for writing poetry. Influenced English critics of the Renaissance and post-Renaissance.

7BC. Jesus is born at Bethlehem near Jerusalem.

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