Wednesday, July 4, 2007

1647 to 1650

The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America. Nathaniel Ward. American. 1647. Nonfiction. Satirical denunciation of England, New England, the human race and women in particular.

1648. Europe's Thirty Years' War ends, October 24, in the Peace of Westphalia. The long war leaves the German states destitute. Mercenary troops from Bohemia, Denmark, France, Spain, Sweden, and the German states themselves have destroyed roughly 18,000 villages, 1,500 towns and 2,000 castles.

1648. A second English civil war has begun along with an Anglo-Scottish war as Royalists battle Roundheads and Presbyterians battle Independents.

1648. Parliament has renounced its allegiance to Charles I, January 15, following revelations of a secret treaty signed by Charles with the Scots.

1648. A Ukrainian pogrom by Greek Orthodox peasants destroys hundreds of Jewish communities, killing all who will not accept the Cross.

1648. Russia's Czar Alexis Mikhailovich, now 19, abolishes the state monopoly in tobacco and reimposes the ban on smoking.

1648. The Taj Mahal completed outside Agra in India.

"To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time." Robert Herrick. British. 1648. Poetry. "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may/ Old Time is still a-flying."

"Corinna's Going A-Maying." Robert Herrick. British. 1648. Poetry. Implores late-sleeping Mistress to rise and join May Day festivities. Life is too short. Urges love.

"Delight in Disorder." Robert Herrick. British. 1648. Poetry. Little imperfections in lady's dress are beguiling.

1649. England's Charles I blandly denies the jurisdiction of a high court but is sentenced to death and beheaded January 30. His son of 18 is proclaimed Charles II at Edinburgh in Scotland, but England becomes a republic headed by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell whose commonwealth will rule until 1660.

1649. Tobacco exports bring prosperity to the Virginia colony.

1649. The Virginia Colony receives an influx of Cavalier (Royalist) refugees from England.

"To Althea from Prison." Richard Lovelace. British. 1649. Poetry. True liberty, freedom of soul, cannot be threatened by chains and fetters.

1650. Ireland will lose close to a quarter of its population in the next decade, declining from 1.3 million to less than 1 million as a result of ruinous wars, anti-Catholic penal laws, and laws that destroy the security of land tenure and put Irishmen at the mercy of absentee landlords.

"An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland." Andrew Marvell. British. 1650. Poetry. Cromwell as fated, elemental force. Pity for Charles I. Uneasiness about the future with Cromwell in power.

The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America. Anne Bradstreet. American. 1650. Poetry. First volume of poems written in North America.

No comments: