Tuesday, July 17, 2007

1682 to 1691

The Medal. John Dryden. British. 1682. Poetry/Satire. Aimed at Shaftesbury who had been exonerated from a charge of high treason.

Religio Laici. John Dryden. British. 1682. Poetry. In defense of the Anglican religion with cogent argument for a middle way.

An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences. Increase Mather. American. 1684. Nonfiction. Collection of reports of supernatural incidents in New England to show God's role in human affairs.

1685. England's Charles II dies February 6 at age 54. Succeeded by his Catholic brother James, who will reign as James II.

1685. The revocation of France's Edict of Nantes, October 18, forbids the practice of any religion but Catholicism and forbids Huguenots to emigrate after 87 years of religious toleration.

1685. More than 50,000 French Huguenot families begin emigrating following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The emigrants will include so many seamen that French shipping will be hurt for generations to come, and the loss of the many craftsmen and intellectuals will leave France crippled.

The Hind and the Panther. John Dryden. British. 1687. Poetry. Bear = the independents. The wolf = the Presbyterians. The hare = the Quakers. The ape = the freethinkers. The boar = the Anabaptists. The fox = the Arians. Defense of the Catholic religion. The Hind = the Church of Rome. The Panther = the Church of England. The Lion = James II.

Principia. Sir Isaac Newton. British. 1687. Science. Presents the law of gravitation and rules for reasoning from physical events.

1688. The birth of a son to James II's Queen Mary, June 10, suggests the likelihood of a Catholic succession. England's Whig leaders send an invitation to the king's son-in-law William of Orange, June 30; William issues a declaration to the English people September 21; lands at Tor Bay, November 5, and moves to assume the throne with his wife Mary.

"Lillibulero." Henry Purcell (music) and Thomas Wharton (text). British. 1688. Song. Savagely thunderous British marching song of the English Revolution of 1688. Satirizes James II and the Catholics.

Esther. Racine. French. 1689. Play. Based on the Book of Esther. Relates the story of Esther and Ahasuerus. Written for school girls.

Declaration of Right. William and Mary. British. 1689. Nonfiction. Sets forth the fundamental principles of the English Constitution. Limits royal power.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. John Locke. British. 1690. Philosophy. Knowledge stems from the perception of the relationships among ideas. The mind at birth is a blank sheet. There are no innate ideas. We acquire knowledge through experience, sensation and reflection.

Athalie. Racine. French. 1691. Play. Based on the story in 2 Kings 11. Athalie kills 42 princes to gain the throne of Judah. She missed Joash, a fatal mistake.

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