Friday, May 30, 2008

1919. Society (2)

1919. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes formulates a "clear and present danger" test for defining conditions under which the constitutional right of freedom of speech may be abridged.

1919. Labor unrest rocks the United States. Four million workers strike or are locked out.

1919. Boston police strike September 9 in protest against pay scales that range from 24 cents per hour for 83-hour weeks down to 21 cents per hour for 98-hour weeks despite wartime inflation. Only 427 of the city's 1,544-man force remain on duty to deal with the orgy of lawlessness that ensues. Gov. Calvin Coolidge learns about the rioting the next morning. He sends state militia into Boston and the 1,117 strikers are dismissed. AF of L leader Samuel Gompers asks that they be reinstated. Coolidge wires Gompers, "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, at any time."

1919. A Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution granting women's suffrage is adopted by a joint resolution of Congress June 20 and sent to the states for ratification.

1919. Race riots erupt in 26 U.S. cities throughout the year.

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